Mālus Trivium

Mālus:  Latin for apple, a genus of trees and shrubs in the Rosaceae family.

Trivium: Latin for the junction of three roads. It was used in medieval times to describe the education of grammar, logic, and rhetoric.

Mālus Trivium is my page intended to provide interesting information and tips about apples and hard cider through a simple visual graphic. To put it simply… it’s apple trivia!

You will continue to see detailed articles and posts on making and enjoying hard cider but Mālus Trivium is all about visual tidbits. Don’t forget my book, which provides even more detailed information about making and enjoying hard cider.

At PricklyCider.com, the goal is to be your source for all things cider.


Industrial yeasts show signs of domestication that started before yeast were even identified.
Industrial yeasts show signs of domestication that started before yeast were even identified.
Maturation: The time needed to make a cider ready to drink.
Maturation: The time needed to make a cider ready to drink.
The impact of light on cider.
The impact of light on cider.
Maillard Reactions Create Color and Aroma
Maillard Reactions Create Color and Aroma
Winesap Phenolic Compounds
Winesap Phenolic Compounds
Preservatives naturally found in hard cider
Preservatives naturally found in hard cider
Proanthocyanidins Characteristics
Proanthocyanidins Characteristics
Phenolic compounds found in Granny Smith apples.
Phenolic compounds found in Granny Smith apples.
Phenolic compounds found in GoldRush apples.
Phenolic compounds found in GoldRush apples.
Key numbers for understanding carbon dioxide in cider.
Key numbers for understanding carbon dioxide in cider.
Impact of Pectic Enzyme - Juice Application
Impact of Pectic Enzyme – Juice Application
Polysaccharides and their influence on wine.
Polysaccharides and their influence on wine.
Maceration and it’s impacts on cider making.
Maceration and it’s impacts on cider making.
Autolysis: The decomposition of yeast cells.
Autolysis: The decomposition of yeast cells.
Hidden Rose and Pink Pearl Apples - Two Red Flesh Varieties
Hidden Rose and Pink Pearl Apples – Two Red Flesh Varieties
Suspended Solids: How juice clarity impacts hard cider
Suspended Solids: How juice clarity impacts hard cider
Cider Words - Perry
Cider Words – Perry
Interesting and uncommon words related to hard cider.
Interesting and uncommon words related to hard cider.
A layer or film formed by yeast on the top of hard cider when exposed to oxygen during storage
A layer or film formed by yeast on the top of hard cider when exposed to oxygen during storage.
Key Genes Impacting Processing Characteristics
Key Genes Impacting Processing Characteristics
Key Genes for Fermentation
Key Genes for Fermentation
Chaptalization: Why would you add sugar?
Chaptalization: Why would you add sugar?
Amino Acids in Hard Cider
Amino Acids in Hard Cider
Glycerol & Non-Saccharomyces Yeast
Glycerol & Non-Saccharomyces Yeast
What is respiration and how is it different from fermentation?
What is respiration and how is it different from fermentation?
Killer toxins to prevent Brettanomyces spoilage
Killer toxins to prevent Brettanomyces spoilage
The impact of ploidy on apple tree pollination.
The impact of ploidy on apple tree pollination.
Sensory Impact of Compounds in Hard Cider
Sensory Impact of Compounds in Hard Cider
Aroma apples add complexity to a cider blend.
Aroma apples add complexity to a cider blend.
Alternative Cider Yeast: Exploring High Aroma non-saccharomyces Cerevisiae Yeast
Alternative Cider Yeast: Exploring High Aroma non-saccharomyces Cerevisiae Yeast
Polyphenols: The peel and the core
Polyphenols: The peel and the core
Cider Oxygenation: The amount of oxygen added to cider by processing
Cider Oxygenation: The amount of oxygen added to cider by processing
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: DNA Sequenced in 1996
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: DNA Sequenced in 1996
Types and average percentage of sugars found in an apple.
Types and average percentage of sugars found in an apple.
The phases of a wild/natural cider fermentation
The phases of a wild/natural cider fermentation
The modern apple originated on the foothills of the Tien Shan mountains in Asia.
The modern apple originated on the foothills of the Tien Shan mountains in Asia.
Yeast Survival Factors: The Impact to Cider Fermentation
Yeast Survival Factors: The Impact to Cider Fermentation
Budding versus Sporulative
Budding versus Sporulative
Phenolic Compounds of Fuji Apples
Phenolic Compounds of Fuji Apples
Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) can aid fermentation, turbidity, and aroma.
Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) can aid fermentation, turbidity, and aroma.
Understanding pH to Make Better Cider
Understanding pH to Make Better Cider
Harrison Apple Phenolic Compounds
Harrison Apple Phenolic Compounds
Phenolic compounds found in Red Delicious apples.
Phenolic compounds found in Red Delicious apples.
Phenolic compounds found in Arkansas Black apples.
Phenolic compounds found in Arkansas Black apples.
The impact of temperature on yeast fermentation.
The impact of temperature on yeast fermentation.
Generalization of how tolerant various microorganisms are to free SO2.
Generalization of how tolerant various microorganisms are to free SO2.
5-caffeoylquinic Acid And it’s health benefits
5-caffeoylquinic Acid And it’s health benefits
Glucophilic and Fructophilic
Glucophilic and Fructophilic
Autophagy: The process where yeast begin consuming themselves in order to stay alive during times of starvation.
Autophagy: The process where yeast begin consuming themselves in order to stay alive during times of starvation.
Using a microwave to extract fruit juice.
Using a microwave to extract fruit juice.
Words related to yeast and their impact on hard cider
Words related to yeast and their impact on hard cider
Historic American Cider Apples
Historic American Cider Apples
Humorous Names of Heirloom Apples
Humorous Names of Heirloom Apples
The key components of apple browning.
The key components of apple browning.
Cider Health: Common Vitamins and Minerals in Cider & Fruit Wine
Cider Health: Common Vitamins and Minerals in Cider & Fruit Wine
Key Genes for Aroma and Sensory Characteristics
Key Genes for Aroma and Sensory Characteristics
Ehrlich Pathway: Fusel Alcohol Creation
Ehrlich Pathway: Fusel Alcohol Creation
Yeast Cell Wall - Mannoprotein Structure
Yeast Cell Wall – Mannoprotein Structure
Key numbers to remember regarding carbonation
Key numbers to remember regarding carbonation
Sorbitol: The Hidden Sweetener
Sorbitol: The Hidden Sweetener
Apple Trees: Chill Hours
Apple Trees: Chill Hours
Apple Tree Propagation: Scion and Bud Grafting
Apple Tree Propagation: Scion and Bud Grafting
Yeast impact on residual sugar and acid.
Yeast impact on residual sugar and acid.
Fruit ripeness can impact a variety of compounds.
Fruit ripeness can impact a variety of compounds.
That rotten egg smell is hydrogen sulfide and there are 3 common ways it’s created.
That rotten egg smell is hydrogen sulfide and there are 3 common ways it’s created.
ATP: The energy used to power fermentation
ATP: The energy used to power fermentation
The impact of MLF on Specific Gravity
The impact of MLF on Specific Gravity
Modifying genes in yeast can impact how it processes sucrose.
Modifying genes in yeast can impact how it processes sucrose.
Acrolein Pathway
Acrolein Pathway
Volumes CO2: Amount of CO2 dissolved in your cider relative to your cider volume.
Volumes CO2: Amount of CO2 dissolved in your cider relative to your cider volume.
Crabapples: The only types of apple native to North America and Europe.
Crabapples: The only types of apple native to North America and Europe.

Have questions about making hard cider…


Need some inspiration for a new hard cider recipe…


Interested in exploring how to better enjoy hard cider and pair it with food…


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