Tannin Polymerization Polymerization can be a key part of the aging process for cider. It is a chemical process in which the tannins found in the cider combine to form larger and more complex molecules. This process is enabled by oxygen through oxidative coupling. Tannins are found at higher concentrations in apples known as bitters, … Continue reading Cider Words: Polymerization
Category: Mālus Trivium
Cider Question: How to make sweet hard cider?
Cider or what some call hard cider is normally dry, which means it has little to no sugar remaining. This is because apple juice has about half the sugar that grape juice has and is often made with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) used for wine. The result is that when fermentation completes, you are likely to … Continue reading Cider Question: How to make sweet hard cider?
Cider Question: How to measure %ABV?
The simple answer to how you measure the percent alcohol by volume (%ABV) of your cider is that you subtract your final specific gravity (FG) from your original specific gravity (OG) and multiple this number by 128. The best equation for calculating hard cider %ABV If you’ve read some of my other articles, you probably … Continue reading Cider Question: How to measure %ABV?
Cider Question: Do I need to use Campden (sulfite)?
The simple answer is “no”. Campden, potassium metabisulfite, sulfite, sulphite, or whatever name or compound you use, it is not needed. This is especially true if you are unsure why you are adding it. As a general rule, if you don’t understand why you are adding something to your cider, don’t add it. This is … Continue reading Cider Question: Do I need to use Campden (sulfite)?
Cider Question: When should I rack my cider?
Racking your hard cider simply means to siphon off the cider leaving the bottom layer of sediment behind. To answer the question of when you should rack your cider, I first need to review the definition of sediment and lees. Apple juice contains a variety of organisms and compounds. Many of these precipitate or drop … Continue reading Cider Question: When should I rack my cider?
Cider Question: Can hard cider go bad?
When people ask if their hard cider can go bad, they are often worried that it might spoil or turn into something that would make them ill. Usually, the cider in question is often sitting in a bucket and has a crust of white or even a moldy film or layer on top of it. … Continue reading Cider Question: Can hard cider go bad?
Cider Question: Do I need to use yeast nutrient?
Many cider recipes call for the addition of yeast nutrient when adding yeast. Do you really need to add yeast nutrient to make cider? The short answer is no but, as you might expect, there are always details and nuances involved when answering most questions about cider. The need for yeast nutrient is usually a … Continue reading Cider Question: Do I need to use yeast nutrient?
Cider Question: How can I encourage Malolactic Fermentation (MLF)?
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a process that usually occurs after primary or alcoholic fermentation completes. Fundamentally, it’s the conversion of malic acid to lactic acid. Malic acid is more acidic compared to lactic acid so MLF reduces the acidity of your cider. Other reactions that impact aroma also occur. Diacetyl creation is one of the … Continue reading Cider Question: How can I encourage Malolactic Fermentation (MLF)?
Cider Question: How can I delay processing my apples?
Things happen and you aren’t always able to process all the apples you need to fill your fermenter. For example, not all apples ripen at the same time. In fact, a single tree may take weeks to ripen all the apples on it. Maybe your grinder or press broke or you picked more apples than … Continue reading Cider Question: How can I delay processing my apples?
Cider Question: Can I use apples with worm holes?
If you are like me, you are interested in trying different apples but more importantly, you’re interested in cheap apples. Those may come from a backyard or roadside tree or even from an orchard. Often, they are damaged either from insects or weather, like hail. This inevitably leads to this week’s Cider Question about whether … Continue reading Cider Question: Can I use apples with worm holes?