Aroma Faults: Solvent

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Cider Aroma Faults - Solvent or Vinegar Some compounds contribute positively, initially. But, if there is too much, they quickly become faults. Ethyl acetate (C5H8O2) is an example of such a compound. In low quantities, it can contribute to the aroma of a cider but in large quantities, it becomes a fault. It will turn … Continue reading Aroma Faults: Solvent

Aroma Faults: Rotten Eggs

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Cider Aroma Faults: Rotten Eggs and Cooked Cabbage The smell of rotten eggs or cooked vegetables like cabbage or broccoli are two of the common sulfur (sulphur for my British friends) related odors faults that can be found in cider. The culprit is generally Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), though other sulfur compounds like diethyl sulfide can … Continue reading Aroma Faults: Rotten Eggs

Yeast Harvesting: Plates & Slants

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Yeast Harvesting: Plates & Slants Yeast and apples are the core ingredients of any cider, even natural/wild fermentations. Understanding your yeast, just like understanding your apples, is key to consistently making great craft hard cider. The yeast will impact your residual sweetness, aromas, tastes, clarity, and many other aspects of your cider. Working in conjunction … Continue reading Yeast Harvesting: Plates & Slants

Yeast Harvesting: Agar

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Yeast Harvesting: Examples of Agar Types If you make enough hard cider, you will inevitably start to explore yeast. Whether you are using commercial strains or just letting nature run its course, yeast is such a critical component in making great craft cider. It impacts your residual sweetness, aromas, tastes, clarity, and many other aspects … Continue reading Yeast Harvesting: Agar

Cider Words: Yeast Survival Factors

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Yeast Survival Factors: The Impact to Cider Fermentation Yeast Survival Factors are also commonly referred to as oxygen substitutes(1) or anaerobic growth factors(2). These are compounds that ensure yeast viability under stress and ultimately, the survival of the yeast. The compounds include sterols, fatty acids, and peptides. You might be thinking that Yeast Survival Factors … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast Survival Factors

Cider Words: Yeast Domestication

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Industrial yeasts show signs of domestication that started before yeast were even identified. Industrial yeast, generally Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are used to make numerous alcoholic beverages as well as biofuel and bread. They live in human constructed environments and show signs of domestication. Domestication simply means that an organism adapts to a human constructed environment so … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast Domestication

Cider Words: Mitosis versus Meiosis

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Budding versus Sporulative Most yeast cells are capable of reproducing asexually, a process called mitosis, and sexually, a process called meiosis. The most common form of asexual reproduction for fermenting yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is budding. Asexual reproduction is most common when resources are abundant. Sexual reproduction is generally the process yeast pursue in times … Continue reading Cider Words: Mitosis versus Meiosis

Cider Words: Maturation

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Maturation: The time needed to make a cider ready to drink. Maturation is defined as the time it takes cider or wine to become ready to drink. I like to broaden that definition to mean the time a cider is stored without preservatives after primary fermentation finishes. I also often call this aging. You can … Continue reading Cider Words: Maturation

Apple Phenolics: Fuji

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Phenolic Compounds of Fuji Apples Fuji is such a common apple that unless you live in the historical cider regions of France, England, or Spain, you will probably be wondering if it makes a good cider. It was developed in Japan in the 1930s and is the offspring of the American Red Delicious and Virginia … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Fuji

Cider Words: Light Struck

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The impact of light on cider. Does light pose a risk to hard cider? Beer is bottled in amber bottles to prevent what is called light struck or skunky beer. This occurs when photosensitive iso-alpha acids form 3-methyl-2-butane-1-thiol (MBT). MBT has a skunk odor. If hard cider includes hops, it can form this fault as … Continue reading Cider Words: Light Struck