Cider Oxygenation – The Impact by Process

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Cider Oxygenation: The amount of oxygen added to cider by processing It is often stated that you want to avoid oxygen exposure to your hard cider after fermentation begins. While this is a good practice, like most questions related to the production of hard cider, the answer often is it depends. With wine, micro-oxygenation can … Continue reading Cider Oxygenation – The Impact by Process

Gene Experiments – Sucrose Fermentation

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Modifying genes in yeast can impact how it processes sucrose. Sacharomyces Cerevisiae is the most commonly used yeast for wine, beer, bread, and cider maker. When Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA was sequenced in 1996, there were around 6,000 genes identified. These genes, which are located in the 16 chromosomes, are what define and regulate biological information … Continue reading Gene Experiments – Sucrose Fermentation

Yeast DNA

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Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: DNA Sequenced in 1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic to have its DNA sequenced(1). It all started in 1992 when the first chromosome (III) was sequenced and published. 15 more chromosomes followed between 1994 and 1996 completing all 16 chromosomes found in the yeast. This effort was accomplished through a collaborative effort … Continue reading Yeast DNA

Piqûre Acroléique

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Acrolein Pathway Piqûre Acroléique... If you are like me, you may still be wondering how that is pronounced. Then, you might be wondering what it is and what it has to do with apples or hard cider. Piqûre Acroléique is the creation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) from glycerol, which is created by a lactic acid bacteria … Continue reading Piqûre Acroléique

Apple Sugars

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Types and average percentage of sugars found in an apple. While actual sugar levels vary by apple variety, weather, and orchard practices, the types of sugars as a percentage of total sugars are reasonably consistent. The majority is fructose followed by sucrose and glucose. The final amount is made up of other sweeteners like sorbitol. … Continue reading Apple Sugars

Volumes CO2 Defined

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Volumes CO2: Amount of CO2 dissolved in your cider relative to your cider volume. You may find carbonation expressed as grams per liter (g/l). However, I have always preferred defining carbonation as Volumes CO2. It makes it easier to visualize as I’ve tried to demonstrate in the graphic because the volume units are universal. If … Continue reading Volumes CO2 Defined

The 3-Phases of Natural Fermentation

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The phases of a wild/natural cider fermentation Apple juice fermented using its native microflora (yeast and bacteria) or what is sometimes called a wild fermentation, normally goes through three natural phases(1). Note that the length of each phase is impacted by temperature. The chart reflects a fermentation at temperatures of 14-22C (60-72F). The first phase … Continue reading The 3-Phases of Natural Fermentation

Crabapples: The Native Apple

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Crabapples: The only types of apple native to North America and Europe. The only apples native to North America and Europe are crabapples. Modern apples, Malus domestica, are genetically linked to Malus sieversii of Central Asia. However, the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris is also prevalent in many modern apple varieties. You can find North American … Continue reading Crabapples: The Native Apple

The Origin of the Apple

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Welcome to the new weekly feature, Mālus Trivium, a visual presentation in apple and cider information. The modern apple originated on the foothills of the Tien Shan mountains in Asia. Genetic research has shown that all our modern day apples, including cider apples can trace their DNA back to the wild apples on the Tien … Continue reading The Origin of the Apple