Cider Words: Polysaccharides

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Polysaccharides and their influence on wine. Polysaccharides are carbohydrates, which are basically simple sugars, monosaccharides like glucose and fructose, linked together in long chains. Yeast can break these down into the simple sugars for use in creating ATP for reproduction. However, polysaccharides also react and combine with many endogenous compounds found in wine and cider. … Continue reading Cider Words: Polysaccharides

Cider Words: Glucophilic & Fructophilic

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Glucophilic and Fructophilic An interesting aspect about yeast is the preference it has for types of sugar. Most yeast prefer glucose so they are what is called glucophilic. The most common fermentation yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used for wine, beer, and bread is generally glucophilic. While many strains are capble of processing glucose snd fructose, some … Continue reading Cider Words: Glucophilic & Fructophilic

Cider and Maceration

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Maceration and it’s impacts on cider making. The definition of maceration is to soften or separate. With regards to apples and pears, this process occurs after the apples have been milled or crushed but before the pomace is pressed. One of its key goals is to break down the pectin found in the fruit. This … Continue reading Cider and Maceration

Cider Words: Autophagy

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Autophagy: The process where yeast begin consuming themselves in order to stay alive during times of starvation. Have you ever heard of autophagy before? No? Don’t worry, I had never heard about it until I read chapter two of Molecular Wine Microbiology(1). Autophagy is strongly linked to autolysis, which I covered in an earlier Mālus … Continue reading Cider Words: Autophagy

Cider Words: Autolysis

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Autolysis: The decomposition of yeast cells. Why does the flavor of cider change when it ages? Part of those changes can come from bacteria or yeast. This micro flora can make malolactic fermentation (MLF) occur or a souring by Brettanomyces yeasts. However, one of the biggest impacts can come from the yeast that fermented your … Continue reading Cider Words: Autolysis

Microwave Extraction

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Using a microwave to extract fruit juice - Modified extraction graph for grapes from A. Cendres(1) How should you process your apples to make juice? Do you mill and then press them? Do you even need to press them? A. Censures and associates researched an interesting alternative for juice extraction: microwaves(1). Their research focused on … Continue reading Microwave Extraction

When are apples ripe?

When are apple ripe?

How do you know the apples you are using for hard cider are ripe? Maybe, you would ask me to define ripe. Is ripe defined by the ideal time to harvest an apple, to eat an apple, or to press an apple. We could even consider the question of ripeness for cooking apples. In my … Continue reading When are apples ripe?

Unique Apples: Red Fleshed Varieties

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Hidden Rose and Pink Pearl Apples - Two Red Flesh Varieties Have you ever eaten a red apple? Not red on the outside, but red on the inside. I must say that there is this appeal of biting into an apple and finding this pink or reddish colored flesh. Even when you know it’s there, … Continue reading Unique Apples: Red Fleshed Varieties

Cider Words: Yeast

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Words related to yeast and their impact on hard cider When making hard cider, the yeast you are using is a critical component. Therefore, I thought a great “Cider Word” article would be to review some of the key but uncommon words that describe the science around how the yeast in your cider works. Familiarizing … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast

Impact of Juice Clarity

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Suspended Solids: How juice clarity impacts hard cider V.K. Joshi and associates assessed the impacts of juice clarity on hard cider. They found that similarly to wine, clarifying juice by filtering and pectic enzyme treatment resulted in higher quality cider(1). Quality was defined by a panel of five trained judges assessing 14 flavor characteristics using … Continue reading Impact of Juice Clarity