Cider and Health – Vitamins and Minerals

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Cider Health: Common Vitamins and Minerals in Cider & Fruit Wine Is it healthy to consume hard cider? A more progressive question might be whether cider a functional food. In their book on fruit wines, Joshi and associates highlight some of the key ways that fruit wine, including hard cider, could provide healthful compounds and … Continue reading Cider and Health – Vitamins and Minerals

Film Yeast – Flor – Pellicle

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A layer or film formed by yeast on the top of hard cider when exposed to oxygen during storage. So you open the lid to your bucket or peer through the glass of your carboy and what do you find, some gnarly looking whitish film, crust, or even little island floating on the surface. What … Continue reading Film Yeast – Flor – Pellicle

Decoding Yeast Genes: Processing Characteristics

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Key Genes Impacting Processing Characteristics Why do some hard ciders become crystal clear in a few days while others seem to always have a slight haze? Have you ever had a hard cider that formed a film on top of it? Were you aware that the yeast you use might impact whether that happens? It … Continue reading Decoding Yeast Genes: Processing Characteristics

Decoding Yeast Genes: Aroma and Sensory Characteristics

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Key Genes for Aroma and Sensory Characteristics If you took the same juice and fermented it with different yeasts, why would they have different aromas or flavors and even unique mouthfeel and sensory characteristics? Why would one be slightly sweeter or more acidic? It’s all in the gene’s. As discussed in other Mālus Trivium posts, … Continue reading Decoding Yeast Genes: Aroma and Sensory Characteristics

Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Alternative Yeast: Pichia Kluyveri

Pichia kluyveri is found on many types of fruit but also on the fleshy part of the plant(1). Several isolated strains came from prickly pears in Arizona and California, which I appreciate given where I currently live. However, it was also isolated from olives and is very common on apples as well as coffee. It … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Decoding Yeast Genes: Fermentation Characteristics

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Key Genes for Fermentation Why do some yeast die during fermentation or only ferment certain types of sugars? Have you ever thought about why some yeast produce hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell) and others don’t? It’s all in the genes. As discussed in other Mālus Trivium posts, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast DNA genome was sequenced … Continue reading Decoding Yeast Genes: Fermentation Characteristics

Chaptalization and Hard Cider (errr… Apple Wine)

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Chaptalization… It sounds like a complex process with lots of things that could go wrong. However, it’s really quite simple. Chaptalization is the process of adding sugar to juice in order to increase the level of alcohol, %ABV, in the final fermented product. You may have noticed that I didn’t say it’s the process of … Continue reading Chaptalization and Hard Cider (errr… Apple Wine)

Ehrlich Pathway Explained

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Ehrlich Pathway: Fusel Alcohol Creation Fusel alcohols or what are also called higher alcohol add aromatic complexity to hard cider and other fermented beverages. Yes, too much of them can lead to undesirable or overwhelming flavors. But, like all things in life, moderation is the spice of life. While most Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen comes from … Continue reading Ehrlich Pathway Explained

Amino Acids: The Key to Great Hard Cider

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Amino Acids in Hard Cider If I asked you to identify one of the most important compounds found in apple juice that impacts the quality of your hard cider, what would you answer? Would you say the sugar? Maybe you would advocate for the yeast. However, I would argue that the key compounds in your … Continue reading Amino Acids: The Key to Great Hard Cider

Mannoproteins in Cider

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Yeast Cell Wall - Mannoprotein Structure What are mannoproteins and why would they be important to hard cider? Mannoproteins are a combination of polysaccharides and proteins bound up in the yeast cell wall. They are connected to the cell membrane that surrounds the yeast. This membrane retains all the key parts of a yeast cell … Continue reading Mannoproteins in Cider