Cider Oxygenation – The Impact by Process

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Cider Oxygenation: The amount of oxygen added to cider by processing It is often stated that you want to avoid oxygen exposure to your hard cider after fermentation begins. While this is a good practice, like most questions related to the production of hard cider, the answer often is it depends. With wine, micro-oxygenation can … Continue reading Cider Oxygenation – The Impact by Process

Gene Experiments – Sucrose Fermentation

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Modifying genes in yeast can impact how it processes sucrose. Sacharomyces Cerevisiae is the most commonly used yeast for wine, beer, bread, and cider maker. When Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA was sequenced in 1996, there were around 6,000 genes identified. These genes, which are located in the 16 chromosomes, are what define and regulate biological information … Continue reading Gene Experiments – Sucrose Fermentation

Yeast DNA

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Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: DNA Sequenced in 1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic to have its DNA sequenced(1). It all started in 1992 when the first chromosome (III) was sequenced and published. 15 more chromosomes followed between 1994 and 1996 completing all 16 chromosomes found in the yeast. This effort was accomplished through a collaborative effort … Continue reading Yeast DNA

Piqûre Acroléique

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Acrolein Pathway Piqûre Acroléique... If you are like me, you may still be wondering how that is pronounced. Then, you might be wondering what it is and what it has to do with apples or hard cider. Piqûre Acroléique is the creation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) from glycerol, which is created by a lactic acid bacteria … Continue reading Piqûre Acroléique

Mold: The What, Why, and How of It.

Mold: The What, Why, and How

Mold... Just the name can conjure up bad images and usually, it’s not something that is positive. There are a few positive occurrences, think cheeses like blue or Gorgonzola, where the mold makes that pungent flavor that many enjoy. However, for hard cider making, mold is usually associated with things not going the way they … Continue reading Mold: The What, Why, and How of It.

Apple Sugars

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Types and average percentage of sugars found in an apple. While actual sugar levels vary by apple variety, weather, and orchard practices, the types of sugars as a percentage of total sugars are reasonably consistent. The majority is fructose followed by sucrose and glucose. The final amount is made up of other sweeteners like sorbitol. … Continue reading Apple Sugars

Volumes CO2 Defined

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Volumes CO2: Amount of CO2 dissolved in your cider relative to your cider volume. You may find carbonation expressed as grams per liter (g/l). However, I have always preferred defining carbonation as Volumes CO2. It makes it easier to visualize as I’ve tried to demonstrate in the graphic because the volume units are universal. If … Continue reading Volumes CO2 Defined

Common Acids in Hard Cider

Apples and Acids: The common acids in hard cider

Apple and pear juice contain a variety of organic acids. Even sweet apples with high pH like Red Delicious and Ambrosia are still acidic. They won’t contain the same quantity as a tart and sharp Granny Smith or bittersharp cider apple, but they contribute to the hard cider flavors. When I assess apples for hard … Continue reading Common Acids in Hard Cider

The 3-Phases of Natural Fermentation

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The phases of a wild/natural cider fermentation Apple juice fermented using its native microflora (yeast and bacteria) or what is sometimes called a wild fermentation, normally goes through three natural phases(1). Note that the length of each phase is impacted by temperature. The chart reflects a fermentation at temperatures of 14-22C (60-72F). The first phase … Continue reading The 3-Phases of Natural Fermentation

The 2020 Home Cider Makers Wish List

2020 Equipment Wishlist

As 2020 comes to an end you may be celebrating one of many various holidays or you just may be celebrating that 2020 is actually almost over. Regardless of whether you are celebrating something, just finished pressing apples for the season, or are ramping up for the the coming harvest, I thought it would be … Continue reading The 2020 Home Cider Makers Wish List