Lipids and Cider

How lipids impact the cider fermentation process.

COVID-19 has brought an interesting term to our attention that most of us probably never heard before the advent of the vaccines being hailed as modern miracles. That term is lipids. Lipids are why the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines require special refrigeration and a key part of how they work. This is all well and … Continue reading Lipids and Cider

Acetic Acid: How Cider Becomes Vinegar

When cider becomes vinegar - acetic acid

Can hard cider go bad? You know, can cider spoil? I often see posts about someone who found an old bottle of cider they forgot and the question often asked is whether it’s safe to drink. The answer is usually, yes, it’s safe to drink. That is because hard cider won’t really spoil, it simply … Continue reading Acetic Acid: How Cider Becomes Vinegar

Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Alternative Yeast: Pichia Kluyveri

Pichia kluyveri is found on many types of fruit but also on the fleshy part of the plant(1). Several isolated strains came from prickly pears in Arizona and California, which I appreciate given where I currently live. However, it was also isolated from olives and is very common on apples as well as coffee. It … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Alternative Cider Yeast: Starmerella bacillaris (Candida zemplinina) Overview

Starmerella bacillaris: Alternative Cider Yeasts

Originally isolated from grapes in California in 2002 and classified as Candida zemplinina in 2003. It was later changed to Starmerella bacillaris. The two samples I obtained from the USDA were logged under Candida zemplinina. Like many yeast, the advent of DNA sequencing has helped better classify many different yeast strains. However, recognize that you … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Starmerella bacillaris (Candida zemplinina) Overview

Alternative Cider Yeast: Hanseniaspora uvarum Overview

Alternative Cider Yeast: Hanseniaspora uvarum

This is the second of the non-Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast that I plan to explore next season. In my first post on alternative yeast for hard cider, I covered Lachancea thermotolerans. A yeast that was misclassified for over 70 years before being identified through gene sequencing in 2003. This post is about Hanseniaspora uvarum, which is … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Hanseniaspora uvarum Overview

Alternative Cider Yeast: Lachancea thermotolerans Overview

Alternative Cider Yeast: Lachancea thermotolerans Overview

As I noted in my Mâlus Trivium post about potential alternative yeast for hard cider, there are several I plan to trial for the next season so I thought I would highlight each. One of those is Lachancea thermotolerans. The Lanchancea genus is a relatively newcomer from a classification perspective. In 2003, a new multi-gene … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Lachancea thermotolerans Overview

Stop Killing Your Juice: The Argument Against Campden

Stop Killing Your Juice: The argument against Campden

Usually, my answer to a question about hard cider is “it depends”. I generally try not to be definitive because there are simply so many unknown factors that being definitive is almost always wrong. However, for this article, I’m going to argue a definitive. The definitive is that you should not use Campden tables in … Continue reading Stop Killing Your Juice: The Argument Against Campden

Hard Cider Tip #31: Estimating Cider %ABV

What’s the best way to estimate the %ABV of cider?

The Common (Old) Formula for Estimating %ABV %ABV = (OG - FG) x 131.2 You have seen the above formula in numerous online posts and books. I even include it in my book. But, is it the best formula for estimating the percentage of Alcohol by Volume (%ABV) in hard cider? What does it even … Continue reading Hard Cider Tip #31: Estimating Cider %ABV

Mold: The What, Why, and How of It.

Mold: The What, Why, and How

Mold... Just the name can conjure up bad images and usually, it’s not something that is positive. There are a few positive occurrences, think cheeses like blue or Gorgonzola, where the mold makes that pungent flavor that many enjoy. However, for hard cider making, mold is usually associated with things not going the way they … Continue reading Mold: The What, Why, and How of It.

Yeast: Killer Factor

Yeast Killer Factor: What does it mean and how could it impact your cider.

Killer Factor is not a measurement of the health risks associated with using a yeast in your fermentation. Instead, it is an assessment of how dominant a yeast can be in your fermentation. You may find commercial yeast strains labeled as one of four types. Killer (K)Sensitive (S)Neutral (N)Killer-Sensitive (KS) However, you may wonder what … Continue reading Yeast: Killer Factor