What is cider yeast?

What is cider yeast?

It seems like a simple question and yet it’s actually a very complex one. For one thing, yeast are found about everywhere and there are thousands of different types of yeast. Should we therefore consider the yeast found on the apple as true cider yeast? What about the yeast found on the equipment used to … Continue reading What is cider yeast?

Cider and Oxygen

Is oxygen thebfriend or foe of your cider?

Oxygen, it’s the dreaded enemy of hard cider makers around the world. Or, is it? I’ve written about how you should avoid oxygen in your cider making process. I am also prone to say that the answer to many cider related questions is simply: it depends. Ultimately, oxygen is no different. Oxygen exposure during your … Continue reading Cider and Oxygen

The Headspace Conundrum

Headspace Conundrum: How Much?

Headspace is the amount of air or open space you have in your container above the liquid. A common question when making cider is how much headspace should you have in your fermenter for primary fermentation? The next question is usually how much you should have when aging your hard cider. There are several considerations … Continue reading The Headspace Conundrum

Fermentation Stages of Yeast

The Stages of Fermentation

It is common to talk about fermentation in stages and often there are three stages identified. If you are talking about a wild or natural fermentation, those stages might be how initially non-Saccharomyces strains start the fermentation. This is followed by Saccharomyces yeast that complete fermentation. The final stage is maturation where Brettanomyces strains often … Continue reading Fermentation Stages of Yeast

Yeast Starter for Cider

The materials and steps to make a yeast starter for cider.

A yeast starter is used to increase the biomass of a yeast and to ensure the yeast cells are healthy and ready to ferment. It is how you grow more yeast cells to ensure you have enough for a robust ferment and to ensure the yeast cells you are using are healthy and full of … Continue reading Yeast Starter for Cider

Yeast Propagation for Cider

Propagating Yeast for Cider

Whether you use commercial yeast or wild yeast, you really should be thinking about yeast propagation. Yeast propagation is the process of taking a small yeast sample, usually from a plate or slant and growing it until you have enough to pitch into your juice to make cider. You might be thinking, that sounds like … Continue reading Yeast Propagation for Cider

Lipids and Cider

How lipids impact the cider fermentation process.

COVID-19 has brought an interesting term to our attention that most of us probably never heard before the advent of the vaccines being hailed as modern miracles. That term is lipids. Lipids are why the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines require special refrigeration and a key part of how they work. This is all well and … Continue reading Lipids and Cider

Acetic Acid: How Cider Becomes Vinegar

When cider becomes vinegar - acetic acid

Can hard cider go bad? You know, can cider spoil? I often see posts about someone who found an old bottle of cider they forgot and the question often asked is whether it’s safe to drink. The answer is usually, yes, it’s safe to drink. That is because hard cider won’t really spoil, it simply … Continue reading Acetic Acid: How Cider Becomes Vinegar

Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Alternative Yeast: Pichia Kluyveri

Pichia kluyveri is found on many types of fruit but also on the fleshy part of the plant(1). Several isolated strains came from prickly pears in Arizona and California, which I appreciate given where I currently live. However, it was also isolated from olives and is very common on apples as well as coffee. It … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Alternative Cider Yeast: Starmerella bacillaris (Candida zemplinina) Overview

Starmerella bacillaris: Alternative Cider Yeasts

Originally isolated from grapes in California in 2002 and classified as Candida zemplinina in 2003. It was later changed to Starmerella bacillaris. The two samples I obtained from the USDA were logged under Candida zemplinina. Like many yeast, the advent of DNA sequencing has helped better classify many different yeast strains. However, recognize that you … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Starmerella bacillaris (Candida zemplinina) Overview