How Yeast Reproduce

Yeast Reproduction: Asexual Vs Sexual

As cider makers, we tend to think of yeast as our partner in producing wonderful hard ciders. We might inoculate with commercial strains or let the natural microflora go to work. Either option, if you are like me, you associate yeast with fermentation and the ethanol it produces. But, yeast don’t care about producing ethanol … Continue reading How Yeast Reproduce

Cider Nutrients: The Need for Nitrogen (YAN)

Cider Nutrients: The Need for Nitrogen

Many books and articles that you read on fermenting wine talk about how you need to add nutrients and specifically nitrogen to ensure a healthy ferment. While lack of other nutrients can slow or stop fermentation prematurely, nitrogen is considered the number one cause for wine fermentation to slow or stop. This is because nitrogen … Continue reading Cider Nutrients: The Need for Nitrogen (YAN)

Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) & Aroma

The impact of Yeast Derivative Products on Aroma

Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) can aid with fermentation by providing nitrogen and nutrients and with clarity by binding with colloidal compounds. But recent research has been focusing on how they can impact aroma. Remember that YDPs are just inactivated yeast developed to provide specific reactionary compounds. YDPs are made by using heat, enzymes, or even … Continue reading Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) & Aroma

Cider Words: Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs)

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Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) can aid fermentation, turbidity, and aroma. Have you ever heard of Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs)? If you are exposed to the wine industry, you have probably come across them as they are becoming more widely used in that industry. Rarely do I hear about there use in cider. I should clarify … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs)

What is cider yeast?

What is cider yeast?

It seems like a simple question and yet it’s actually a very complex one. For one thing, yeast are found about everywhere and there are thousands of different types of yeast. Should we therefore consider the yeast found on the apple as true cider yeast? What about the yeast found on the equipment used to … Continue reading What is cider yeast?

Cider and Oxygen

Is oxygen thebfriend or foe of your cider?

Oxygen, it’s the dreaded enemy of hard cider makers around the world. Or, is it? I’ve written about how you should avoid oxygen in your cider making process. I am also prone to say that the answer to many cider related questions is simply: it depends. Ultimately, oxygen is no different. Oxygen exposure during your … Continue reading Cider and Oxygen

The Headspace Conundrum

Headspace Conundrum: How Much?

Headspace is the amount of air or open space you have in your container above the liquid. A common question when making cider is how much headspace should you have in your fermenter for primary fermentation? The next question is usually how much you should have when aging your hard cider. There are several considerations … Continue reading The Headspace Conundrum

Fermentation Stages of Yeast

The Stages of Fermentation

It is common to talk about fermentation in stages and often there are three stages identified. If you are talking about a wild or natural fermentation, those stages might be how initially non-Saccharomyces strains start the fermentation. This is followed by Saccharomyces yeast that complete fermentation. The final stage is maturation where Brettanomyces strains often … Continue reading Fermentation Stages of Yeast

Yeast Starter for Cider

The materials and steps to make a yeast starter for cider.

A yeast starter is used to increase the biomass of a yeast and to ensure the yeast cells are healthy and ready to ferment. It is how you grow more yeast cells to ensure you have enough for a robust ferment and to ensure the yeast cells you are using are healthy and full of … Continue reading Yeast Starter for Cider

Yeast Propagation for Cider

Propagating Yeast for Cider

Whether you use commercial yeast or wild yeast, you really should be thinking about yeast propagation. Yeast propagation is the process of taking a small yeast sample, usually from a plate or slant and growing it until you have enough to pitch into your juice to make cider. You might be thinking, that sounds like … Continue reading Yeast Propagation for Cider