Aging Cider with Oak

Aging Cider with Oak

I did a previous experiment using heavy toasted French and American oak on a cider to see if we could recognize a difference in the aromas. This led to using oak more often and to even start experimenting with different wood, like maple, hickory, and birch. Wood is a great adjunct for cider. Besides adding … Continue reading Aging Cider with Oak

Hazy Cider: Colloids

Cider Clarity - Colloidal Compounds

If your hard cider is hazy, it has colloids. Cider colloids are a mixture of small particles or compounds that are insoluble and evenly suspended within your cider. Colloids are generally compounds made up of carbohydrates, color compounds, or proteins(1). The carbohydrates and color compounds are usually derived from the fruit. The proteins are usually … Continue reading Hazy Cider: Colloids

Phenolics and Cider

Phenolic Compounds in Cider: Tannins

What exactly are phenolics? Are they tannins? I don’t think there a simple answer. If I told you there are two basics compounds, flavonoid and non-flavonoid types of phenolics, would that clarify it? It didn’t for me but, chemistry wasn’t my favorite subject in school. If I broke down the flavonoids into anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and … Continue reading Phenolics and Cider

Fermentation Stages of Yeast

The Stages of Fermentation

It is common to talk about fermentation in stages and often there are three stages identified. If you are talking about a wild or natural fermentation, those stages might be how initially non-Saccharomyces strains start the fermentation. This is followed by Saccharomyces yeast that complete fermentation. The final stage is maturation where Brettanomyces strains often … Continue reading Fermentation Stages of Yeast

Apple Peel Preparation

How to prepare apples peels for use in hard cider fermentation

I have been harvesting and including apple peels in my hard cider for several years. As I have noted in other articles (see the tips page), peels are an excellent way to enhance the organoleptic properties of your hard cider. Want a darker hue to your cider, include peels from red apples in your fermenter. … Continue reading Apple Peel Preparation

Yeast Starter for Cider

The materials and steps to make a yeast starter for cider.

A yeast starter is used to increase the biomass of a yeast and to ensure the yeast cells are healthy and ready to ferment. It is how you grow more yeast cells to ensure you have enough for a robust ferment and to ensure the yeast cells you are using are healthy and full of … Continue reading Yeast Starter for Cider

Yeast Propagation for Cider

Propagating Yeast for Cider

Whether you use commercial yeast or wild yeast, you really should be thinking about yeast propagation. Yeast propagation is the process of taking a small yeast sample, usually from a plate or slant and growing it until you have enough to pitch into your juice to make cider. You might be thinking, that sounds like … Continue reading Yeast Propagation for Cider

Nutrient Deprivation: Keeving

The Keeving Process

Keeving is a process that seeks to remove nutrients needed for fermentation in order to create residual sweetness. Yeast need nutrients and vitamins to ferment and while they are good at finding or creating many of these nutrients, it only takes the loss of one to stop the process. Keeving is a process that removes … Continue reading Nutrient Deprivation: Keeving

Lipids and Cider

How lipids impact the cider fermentation process.

COVID-19 has brought an interesting term to our attention that most of us probably never heard before the advent of the vaccines being hailed as modern miracles. That term is lipids. Lipids are why the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines require special refrigeration and a key part of how they work. This is all well and … Continue reading Lipids and Cider

Freeze Concentrating Apple Juice

Freeze Concentrating Apple Juice

The steps to freeze concentrating apple juice. Have you ever wanted to make ice cider? What about using juice concentrate for bottle conditioning? Have you ever wondered if there was an effective way to store apple juice? These are all reasons why you might want to freeze concentrate apple juice, or any juice for that … Continue reading Freeze Concentrating Apple Juice