Lipids and Cider

How lipids impact the cider fermentation process.

COVID-19 has brought an interesting term to our attention that most of us probably never heard before the advent of the vaccines being hailed as modern miracles. That term is lipids. Lipids are why the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines require special refrigeration and a key part of how they work. This is all well and … Continue reading Lipids and Cider

Cider Words: Yeast

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Words related to yeast and their impact on hard cider When making hard cider, the yeast you are using is a critical component. Therefore, I thought a great “Cider Word” article would be to review some of the key but uncommon words that describe the science around how the yeast in your cider works. Familiarizing … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast

Cider Tasting – Common Faults

Cider Tasting Faults - Aroma, Balance, and Finish

I have sampled a few ciders over the years and I have worked to develop a more discerning palate. It hasn’t been easy. For many years, I wasn’t open to trying new things. However, I now seek out the new and unique, especially when it comes to fruits and vegetables. I do this partially as … Continue reading Cider Tasting – Common Faults

Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Alternative Yeast: Pichia Kluyveri

Pichia kluyveri is found on many types of fruit but also on the fleshy part of the plant(1). Several isolated strains came from prickly pears in Arizona and California, which I appreciate given where I currently live. However, it was also isolated from olives and is very common on apples as well as coffee. It … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Decoding Yeast Genes: Fermentation Characteristics

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Key Genes for Fermentation Why do some yeast die during fermentation or only ferment certain types of sugars? Have you ever thought about why some yeast produce hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell) and others don’t? It’s all in the genes. As discussed in other Mālus Trivium posts, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast DNA genome was sequenced … Continue reading Decoding Yeast Genes: Fermentation Characteristics

Cider Yeast Bread

Making bread from cider yeast.

Have you ever wondered how the yeast used to make bread is different from that used to make cider, beer, and wine? First off, the standard yeast used for most fermented food products is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. So, fundamentally, the yeast has the same basic characteristics. However, just like yeast have different characteristics when fermenting wine … Continue reading Cider Yeast Bread

Ehrlich Pathway Explained

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Ehrlich Pathway: Fusel Alcohol Creation Fusel alcohols or what are also called higher alcohol add aromatic complexity to hard cider and other fermented beverages. Yes, too much of them can lead to undesirable or overwhelming flavors. But, like all things in life, moderation is the spice of life. While most Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen comes from … Continue reading Ehrlich Pathway Explained

Amino Acids: The Key to Great Hard Cider

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Amino Acids in Hard Cider If I asked you to identify one of the most important compounds found in apple juice that impacts the quality of your hard cider, what would you answer? Would you say the sugar? Maybe you would advocate for the yeast. However, I would argue that the key compounds in your … Continue reading Amino Acids: The Key to Great Hard Cider

Mannoproteins in Cider

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Yeast Cell Wall - Mannoprotein Structure What are mannoproteins and why would they be important to hard cider? Mannoproteins are a combination of polysaccharides and proteins bound up in the yeast cell wall. They are connected to the cell membrane that surrounds the yeast. This membrane retains all the key parts of a yeast cell … Continue reading Mannoproteins in Cider

Glycerol: The Benefit of Non-Saccharomyces Yeast

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Glycerol & Non-Saccharomyces Yeast Much of my recent research and reading has been on yeast, especially non-Saccharomyces genera. Wine, beer, bread, and most commercial food fermentation is performed by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genus. But, there is a new push to explore and use non-Saccharomyces strains, especially in wine making. The biggest reasons are 1) aroma … Continue reading Glycerol: The Benefit of Non-Saccharomyces Yeast