Apple Phenolics: Fuji

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Phenolic Compounds of Fuji Apples Fuji is such a common apple that unless you live in the historical cider regions of France, England, or Spain, you will probably be wondering if it makes a good cider. It was developed in Japan in the 1930s and is the offspring of the American Red Delicious and Virginia … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Fuji

Apple Phenolics: Winesap

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Winesap Phenolic Compounds Winesap is an heirloom apple variety in America and it was the parent of numerous other apples including various Winesap seedlings. Stayman Winesap is an example of a Winesap seedling that is commonly found in the United States. Arkansas Black apples are also thought to be a seedling of Winesap. While originally … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Winesap

Cider and Health – Proanthocyanidins

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Proanthocyanidins Characteristics Besides providing hard cider with organoleptic benefits, like bitterness and astringency, phenolic compounds can provide valuable health benefits. The old adage of an apple a day keeps the doctor away has a lot of truth to it. Many studies have shown the healthful benefits derived from the moderate consumption of red wine. These … Continue reading Cider and Health – Proanthocyanidins

Apple Phenolics: Harrison

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Harrison Apple Phenolic Compounds Since I have been using Harrison apples as my reference for Apple Phenolics, I thought it would be good to provide the details of the Harrison apple. This was an apple lost in American for years. Like so many American apples, especially cider varieties, it fell out of favor along with … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Harrison

Apple Phenolics: Red Delicious

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Phenolic compounds found in Red Delicious apples. In this Apple Phenolics we look at the ubiquitous commercial apple that seems to get little love: Red Delicious. When it was discovered and propagated, I’m sure it was a winner. It’s a lovely red color with a fine shape. It a low acid apple that makes it … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Red Delicious

Apple Phenolics: Granny Smith

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Phenolic compounds found in Granny Smith apples. In this Mālus Trivium, I continue Apple Phenolics looking at one of the standard cooking apple the world over: Granny Smith. You may not normally think of Granny Smith apples being a good choice for cider but I would argue that it can make a nice sparkling single … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Granny Smith

Apple Phenolics: Arkansas Black

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Phenolic compounds found in Arkansas Black apples. One of the biggest challenges most home cider makers face is finding apples that will provide sufficient phenolic compounds. The answer to the problem is often literally staring us in the face. It is the apple peel. “Apple Phenolics” is my attempt to guide home cider makers on … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Arkansas Black

Apple Phenolics: GoldRush

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Phenolic compounds found in GoldRush apples. One of the biggest challenges most home cider makers face is finding apples that will provide sufficient phenolic compounds. The answer to the problem is often literally staring us in the face. It is the apple peel. “Apple Phenolics” is my attempt to guide home cider makers on how … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: GoldRush

Phenolics and Cider

Phenolic Compounds in Cider: Tannins

What exactly are phenolics? Are they tannins? I don’t think there a simple answer. If I told you there are two basics compounds, flavonoid and non-flavonoid types of phenolics, would that clarify it? It didn’t for me but, chemistry wasn’t my favorite subject in school. If I broke down the flavonoids into anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and … Continue reading Phenolics and Cider

The Impact of Temperature on Yeast Fermentation

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The impact of temperature on yeast fermentation. Temperature has a big impact on how yeast ferment. In fact, it can even prevent yeast from fermenting. Pasteurization is the extreme example on the hot side that can kill yeast. Cold can also prevent or slow yeast strains from fermenting but, it doesn’t tend to kill the … Continue reading The Impact of Temperature on Yeast Fermentation