Cider Words: Interactomics

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Systems Biology: Interactomics Yeast were first identified by Pasteur around 1860 and the isolation and propagation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae soon followed. However, for over a hundred years, yeast were mostly isolated from wild fermentations and propagated based on their fermentative and organoleptic properties. Not until the 1990’s did we really start breeding or mutating yeasts … Continue reading Cider Words: Interactomics

Cider Words: Yeast Regulation

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Yeast Regulation: Upregulating and Downregulating Yeast are single cell organisms that are seeking to survive and thrive in whatever environment they find themselves. As a single cell organism, we might be inclined to think of them as simple but, that would be a mistake. Yeast have a vast amount of processes they perform to live … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast Regulation

Cider Words: Yeast Domestication

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Industrial yeasts show signs of domestication that started before yeast were even identified. Industrial yeast, generally Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are used to make numerous alcoholic beverages as well as biofuel and bread. They live in human constructed environments and show signs of domestication. Domestication simply means that an organism adapts to a human constructed environment so … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast Domestication

Lipids and Cider

How lipids impact the cider fermentation process.

COVID-19 has brought an interesting term to our attention that most of us probably never heard before the advent of the vaccines being hailed as modern miracles. That term is lipids. Lipids are why the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines require special refrigeration and a key part of how they work. This is all well and … Continue reading Lipids and Cider

Decoding Yeast Genes: Processing Characteristics

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Key Genes Impacting Processing Characteristics Why do some hard ciders become crystal clear in a few days while others seem to always have a slight haze? Have you ever had a hard cider that formed a film on top of it? Were you aware that the yeast you use might impact whether that happens? It … Continue reading Decoding Yeast Genes: Processing Characteristics

Decoding Yeast Genes: Aroma and Sensory Characteristics

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Key Genes for Aroma and Sensory Characteristics If you took the same juice and fermented it with different yeasts, why would they have different aromas or flavors and even unique mouthfeel and sensory characteristics? Why would one be slightly sweeter or more acidic? It’s all in the gene’s. As discussed in other Mālus Trivium posts, … Continue reading Decoding Yeast Genes: Aroma and Sensory Characteristics

Decoding Yeast Genes: Fermentation Characteristics

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Key Genes for Fermentation Why do some yeast die during fermentation or only ferment certain types of sugars? Have you ever thought about why some yeast produce hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell) and others don’t? It’s all in the genes. As discussed in other Mālus Trivium posts, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast DNA genome was sequenced … Continue reading Decoding Yeast Genes: Fermentation Characteristics

Gene Experiments – Sucrose Fermentation

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Modifying genes in yeast can impact how it processes sucrose. Sacharomyces Cerevisiae is the most commonly used yeast for wine, beer, bread, and cider maker. When Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA was sequenced in 1996, there were around 6,000 genes identified. These genes, which are located in the 16 chromosomes, are what define and regulate biological information … Continue reading Gene Experiments – Sucrose Fermentation

Yeast DNA

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Saccharomyces Cerevisiae: DNA Sequenced in 1996 Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first eukaryotic to have its DNA sequenced(1). It all started in 1992 when the first chromosome (III) was sequenced and published. 15 more chromosomes followed between 1994 and 1996 completing all 16 chromosomes found in the yeast. This effort was accomplished through a collaborative effort … Continue reading Yeast DNA