Cider Words: Yeast

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Words related to yeast and their impact on hard cider When making hard cider, the yeast you are using is a critical component. Therefore, I thought a great “Cider Word” article would be to review some of the key but uncommon words that describe the science around how the yeast in your cider works. Familiarizing … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast

Acetic Acid: How Cider Becomes Vinegar

When cider becomes vinegar - acetic acid

Can hard cider go bad? You know, can cider spoil? I often see posts about someone who found an old bottle of cider they forgot and the question often asked is whether it’s safe to drink. The answer is usually, yes, it’s safe to drink. That is because hard cider won’t really spoil, it simply … Continue reading Acetic Acid: How Cider Becomes Vinegar

Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Alternative Yeast: Pichia Kluyveri

Pichia kluyveri is found on many types of fruit but also on the fleshy part of the plant(1). Several isolated strains came from prickly pears in Arizona and California, which I appreciate given where I currently live. However, it was also isolated from olives and is very common on apples as well as coffee. It … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Pichia kluyveri Overview

Decoding Yeast Genes: Fermentation Characteristics

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Key Genes for Fermentation Why do some yeast die during fermentation or only ferment certain types of sugars? Have you ever thought about why some yeast produce hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell) and others don’t? It’s all in the genes. As discussed in other Mālus Trivium posts, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast DNA genome was sequenced … Continue reading Decoding Yeast Genes: Fermentation Characteristics

Cider Yeast Bread

Making bread from cider yeast.

Have you ever wondered how the yeast used to make bread is different from that used to make cider, beer, and wine? First off, the standard yeast used for most fermented food products is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. So, fundamentally, the yeast has the same basic characteristics. However, just like yeast have different characteristics when fermenting wine … Continue reading Cider Yeast Bread

Ehrlich Pathway Explained

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Ehrlich Pathway: Fusel Alcohol Creation Fusel alcohols or what are also called higher alcohol add aromatic complexity to hard cider and other fermented beverages. Yes, too much of them can lead to undesirable or overwhelming flavors. But, like all things in life, moderation is the spice of life. While most Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen comes from … Continue reading Ehrlich Pathway Explained

Making Black & Gold Cider

Black & Gold Cider

Black & Gold Cider Label Black & Gold Cider is made from two of my favorite apples: Arkansas Black and GoldRush. I enjoy eating them, though I recommend cutting up the Arkansas Blacks as they can be a little hard. However, they both have a fair amount of tannins and acid as well as aroma. … Continue reading Making Black & Gold Cider

Alternative Cider Yeast: Starmerella bacillaris (Candida zemplinina) Overview

Starmerella bacillaris: Alternative Cider Yeasts

Originally isolated from grapes in California in 2002 and classified as Candida zemplinina in 2003. It was later changed to Starmerella bacillaris. The two samples I obtained from the USDA were logged under Candida zemplinina. Like many yeast, the advent of DNA sequencing has helped better classify many different yeast strains. However, recognize that you … Continue reading Alternative Cider Yeast: Starmerella bacillaris (Candida zemplinina) Overview

Respiration versus Fermentation

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What is respiration and how is it different from fermentation? Have you ever heard that oxygen is bad and to avoid oxygen exposure when fermenting hard cider? It is or at least it can be. Yes, this is another one of those questions where the answer is, it depends. Generally speaking, yeast have two main … Continue reading Respiration versus Fermentation

Making Winter Cider

Winter Cider: Experimenting with Fermentation Temperature

Winter: Lager yeast fermented hot and aged on hickory. One day I woke up with a crazy idea for a hard cider recipe. Okay, it’s more than one day but, sometimes they actually work. I had been reading about fermentation temperatures and whether hotter or colder fermentations are better. I noted that much of the … Continue reading Making Winter Cider