What is the best yeast to use to make cider? The answer is simple. Whichever yeast creates the hard cider you most enjoy. Okay, I took the non-confrontational path but, it’s true. If you make cider you love from wine yeast, use it. If beer yeast makes the cider of your dreams, use it. If … Continue reading Non-Saccharomyces Yeast: Defining Cider from a Cider-Makers Perspective
Aroma Faults: Diacetyl
Cider Aroma Faults: Butter Sometimes too much of a compound is the cause of a fault. Other times, the definition of whether its a fault depends on the beverage. Diacetyl (C4H6O2) is an example of such a compound. In most beers, it’s considered a fault but, in most California chardonnays, it’s desired. Butter is the … Continue reading Aroma Faults: Diacetyl
Aroma Faults: Solvent
Cider Aroma Faults - Solvent or Vinegar Some compounds contribute positively, initially. But, if there is too much, they quickly become faults. Ethyl acetate (C5H8O2) is an example of such a compound. In low quantities, it can contribute to the aroma of a cider but in large quantities, it becomes a fault. It will turn … Continue reading Aroma Faults: Solvent
Aroma Faults: Rotten Eggs
Cider Aroma Faults: Rotten Eggs and Cooked Cabbage The smell of rotten eggs or cooked vegetables like cabbage or broccoli are two of the common sulfur (sulphur for my British friends) related odors faults that can be found in cider. The culprit is generally Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), though other sulfur compounds like diethyl sulfide can … Continue reading Aroma Faults: Rotten Eggs
Phenolics and Cider
What exactly are phenolics? Are they tannins? I don’t think there a simple answer. If I told you there are two basics compounds, flavonoid and non-flavonoid types of phenolics, would that clarify it? It didn’t for me but, chemistry wasn’t my favorite subject in school. If I broke down the flavonoids into anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and … Continue reading Phenolics and Cider
Cider Tasting – Common Faults
I have sampled a few ciders over the years and I have worked to develop a more discerning palate. It hasn’t been easy. For many years, I wasn’t open to trying new things. However, I now seek out the new and unique, especially when it comes to fruits and vegetables. I do this partially as … Continue reading Cider Tasting – Common Faults
Acrolein Pathway Piqûre Acroléique... If you are like me, you may still be wondering how that is pronounced. Then, you might be wondering what it is and what it has to do with apples or hard cider. Piqûre Acroléique is the creation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) from glycerol, which is created by a lactic acid bacteria … Continue reading Piqûre Acroléique
Mold: The What, Why, and How of It.
Mold... Just the name can conjure up bad images and usually, it’s not something that is positive. There are a few positive occurrences, think cheeses like blue or Gorgonzola, where the mold makes that pungent flavor that many enjoy. However, for hard cider making, mold is usually associated with things not going the way they … Continue reading Mold: The What, Why, and How of It.