Racking your hard cider simply means to siphon off the cider leaving the bottom layer of sediment behind. To answer the question of when you should rack your cider, I first need to review the definition of sediment and lees. Apple juice contains a variety of organisms and compounds. Many of these precipitate or drop … Continue reading Cider Question: When should I rack my cider?
Cider Question: How can I encourage Malolactic Fermentation (MLF)?
Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a process that usually occurs after primary or alcoholic fermentation completes. Fundamentally, it’s the conversion of malic acid to lactic acid. Malic acid is more acidic compared to lactic acid so MLF reduces the acidity of your cider. Other reactions that impact aroma also occur. Diacetyl creation is one of the … Continue reading Cider Question: How can I encourage Malolactic Fermentation (MLF)?
Cider Words: Maturation
Maturation: The time needed to make a cider ready to drink. Maturation is defined as the time it takes cider or wine to become ready to drink. I like to broaden that definition to mean the time a cider is stored without preservatives after primary fermentation finishes. I also often call this aging. You can … Continue reading Cider Words: Maturation
Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) & Aroma
Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) can aid with fermentation by providing nitrogen and nutrients and with clarity by binding with colloidal compounds. But recent research has been focusing on how they can impact aroma. Remember that YDPs are just inactivated yeast developed to provide specific reactionary compounds. YDPs are made by using heat, enzymes, or even … Continue reading Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) & Aroma
Cider Words: Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs)
Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs) can aid fermentation, turbidity, and aroma. Have you ever heard of Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs)? If you are exposed to the wine industry, you have probably come across them as they are becoming more widely used in that industry. Rarely do I hear about there use in cider. I should clarify … Continue reading Cider Words: Yeast Derivative Products (YDPs)
Cider Words: Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides and their influence on wine. Polysaccharides are carbohydrates, which are basically simple sugars, monosaccharides like glucose and fructose, linked together in long chains. Yeast can break these down into the simple sugars for use in creating ATP for reproduction. However, polysaccharides also react and combine with many endogenous compounds found in wine and cider. … Continue reading Cider Words: Polysaccharides
Cider Words: Autophagy
Autophagy: The process where yeast begin consuming themselves in order to stay alive during times of starvation. Have you ever heard of autophagy before? No? Don’t worry, I had never heard about it until I read chapter two of Molecular Wine Microbiology(1). Autophagy is strongly linked to autolysis, which I covered in an earlier Mālus … Continue reading Cider Words: Autophagy
Hard Cider Tip #29: Aging on Lees (Sur Lies)
Aging on lees, also called ‘sur lies’, is a traditional practice for many wines and hard ciders. In Burgundy, France, there is a saying that translates something like ‘lees for wine is like a mother for a child’. The concept being that just like a mother nurtures their child, so to do lees nurture a … Continue reading Hard Cider Tip #29: Aging on Lees (Sur Lies)