Apple Phenolics: Red Delicious

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Phenolic compounds found in Red Delicious apples. In this Apple Phenolics we look at the ubiquitous commercial apple that seems to get little love: Red Delicious. When it was discovered and propagated, I’m sure it was a winner. It’s a lovely red color with a fine shape. It a low acid apple that makes it … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Red Delicious

Apple Phenolics: Granny Smith

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Phenolic compounds found in Granny Smith apples. In this Mālus Trivium, I continue Apple Phenolics looking at one of the standard cooking apple the world over: Granny Smith. You may not normally think of Granny Smith apples being a good choice for cider but I would argue that it can make a nice sparkling single … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Granny Smith

Apple Phenolics: Arkansas Black

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Phenolic compounds found in Arkansas Black apples. One of the biggest challenges most home cider makers face is finding apples that will provide sufficient phenolic compounds. The answer to the problem is often literally staring us in the face. It is the apple peel. “Apple Phenolics” is my attempt to guide home cider makers on … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: Arkansas Black

Apple Phenolics: GoldRush

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Phenolic compounds found in GoldRush apples. One of the biggest challenges most home cider makers face is finding apples that will provide sufficient phenolic compounds. The answer to the problem is often literally staring us in the face. It is the apple peel. “Apple Phenolics” is my attempt to guide home cider makers on how … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: GoldRush

Phenolics and Cider

Phenolic Compounds in Cider: Tannins

What exactly are phenolics? Are they tannins? I don’t think there a simple answer. If I told you there are two basics compounds, flavonoid and non-flavonoid types of phenolics, would that clarify it? It didn’t for me but, chemistry wasn’t my favorite subject in school. If I broke down the flavonoids into anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and … Continue reading Phenolics and Cider

Pectic Enzyme: Juice Application

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Impact of Pectic Enzyme - Juice Application Pectolyase, pectozyme, and polygalacturonase are three types of pectic emzymes or what are often called pectinases. These are naturally occurring compounds found in plants that breakdown the polysaccharide known as pectin. Pectin gives structure and strength to the plant cells. This structure is what make jelly and jam become … Continue reading Pectic Enzyme: Juice Application

Fermentation Stages of Yeast

The Stages of Fermentation

It is common to talk about fermentation in stages and often there are three stages identified. If you are talking about a wild or natural fermentation, those stages might be how initially non-Saccharomyces strains start the fermentation. This is followed by Saccharomyces yeast that complete fermentation. The final stage is maturation where Brettanomyces strains often … Continue reading Fermentation Stages of Yeast

Cider and Health: 5-caffeoylquinic Acid

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5-caffeoylquinic Acid And it’s health benefits I like the motto, ”All things in moderation”. I enjoy my hard cider with dinner and for me, one is plenty. I love contemplating the aroma, the flavor, and how it goes with the food. What I also enjoy is that hard cider can have healthful aspects. It’s part … Continue reading Cider and Health: 5-caffeoylquinic Acid

Apple Peel Preparation

How to prepare apples peels for use in hard cider fermentation

I have been harvesting and including apple peels in my hard cider for several years. As I have noted in other articles (see the tips page), peels are an excellent way to enhance the organoleptic properties of your hard cider. Want a darker hue to your cider, include peels from red apples in your fermenter. … Continue reading Apple Peel Preparation

Cider and Maceration

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Maceration and it’s impacts on cider making. The definition of maceration is to soften or separate. With regards to apples and pears, this process occurs after the apples have been milled or crushed but before the pomace is pressed. One of its key goals is to break down the pectin found in the fruit. This … Continue reading Cider and Maceration