Cider Words: Autophagy

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Autophagy: The process where yeast begin consuming themselves in order to stay alive during times of starvation. Have you ever heard of autophagy before? No? Don’t worry, I had never heard about it until I read chapter two of Molecular Wine Microbiology(1). Autophagy is strongly linked to autolysis, which I covered in an earlier Mālus … Continue reading Cider Words: Autophagy

Cider Words: Autolysis

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Autolysis: The decomposition of yeast cells. Why does the flavor of cider change when it ages? Part of those changes can come from bacteria or yeast. This micro flora can make malolactic fermentation (MLF) occur or a souring by Brettanomyces yeasts. However, one of the biggest impacts can come from the yeast that fermented your … Continue reading Cider Words: Autolysis

Microwave Extraction

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Using a microwave to extract fruit juice - Modified extraction graph for grapes from A. Cendres(1) How should you process your apples to make juice? Do you mill and then press them? Do you even need to press them? A. Censures and associates researched an interesting alternative for juice extraction: microwaves(1). Their research focused on … Continue reading Microwave Extraction

Unique Apples: Red Fleshed Varieties

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Hidden Rose and Pink Pearl Apples - Two Red Flesh Varieties Have you ever eaten a red apple? Not red on the outside, but red on the inside. I must say that there is this appeal of biting into an apple and finding this pink or reddish colored flesh. Even when you know it’s there, … Continue reading Unique Apples: Red Fleshed Varieties

Impact of Juice Clarity

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Suspended Solids: How juice clarity impacts hard cider V.K. Joshi and associates assessed the impacts of juice clarity on hard cider. They found that similarly to wine, clarifying juice by filtering and pectic enzyme treatment resulted in higher quality cider(1). Quality was defined by a panel of five trained judges assessing 14 flavor characteristics using … Continue reading Impact of Juice Clarity

Cider and Health – Vitamins and Minerals

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Cider Health: Common Vitamins and Minerals in Cider & Fruit Wine Is it healthy to consume hard cider? A more progressive question might be whether cider a functional food. In their book on fruit wines, Joshi and associates highlight some of the key ways that fruit wine, including hard cider, could provide healthful compounds and … Continue reading Cider and Health – Vitamins and Minerals

Film Yeast – Flor – Pellicle

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A layer or film formed by yeast on the top of hard cider when exposed to oxygen during storage. So you open the lid to your bucket or peer through the glass of your carboy and what do you find, some gnarly looking whitish film, crust, or even little island floating on the surface. What … Continue reading Film Yeast – Flor – Pellicle

The 3-Phases of Natural Fermentation

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The phases of a wild/natural cider fermentation Apple juice fermented using its native microflora (yeast and bacteria) or what is sometimes called a wild fermentation, normally goes through three natural phases(1). Note that the length of each phase is impacted by temperature. The chart reflects a fermentation at temperatures of 14-22C (60-72F). The first phase … Continue reading The 3-Phases of Natural Fermentation

Crabapples: The Native Apple

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Crabapples: The only types of apple native to North America and Europe. The only apples native to North America and Europe are crabapples. Modern apples, Malus domestica, are genetically linked to Malus sieversii of Central Asia. However, the European crabapple, Malus sylvestris is also prevalent in many modern apple varieties. You can find North American … Continue reading Crabapples: The Native Apple

The Origin of the Apple

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Welcome to the new weekly feature, Mālus Trivium, a visual presentation in apple and cider information. The modern apple originated on the foothills of the Tien Shan mountains in Asia. Genetic research has shown that all our modern day apples, including cider apples can trace their DNA back to the wild apples on the Tien … Continue reading The Origin of the Apple