Tannin Polymerization Polymerization can be a key part of the aging process for cider. It is a chemical process in which the tannins found in the cider combine to form larger and more complex molecules. This process is enabled by oxygen through oxidative coupling. Tannins are found at higher concentrations in apples known as bitters, … Continue reading Cider Words: Polymerization
Cider Equipment: Fermentation
I have the pleasure of interacting with people from all over the world and at all levels of cider making experience. But, no matter how many books and research papers papers I read, apples I assess, yeasts I trial, or experiments I conduct, I am fundamentally just a home craft cider maker. When I write … Continue reading Cider Equipment: Fermentation
Cider Question: Do you need to use pectic enzyme?
Pectic enzymes or what are also referred to a pectinases, are enzyme compounds that cleave or breakdown the natural pectin found in both apples and pears. Generally, pears have higher levels of natural pectin. Pectic enzymes are often produced naturally during fermentation by yeast, but as is common, the amount will vary by yeast strain. … Continue reading Cider Question: Do you need to use pectic enzyme?
Pizza and Cider: Tropical Heat
Servings: 10-12 Inch Pizza I continue to expand my pizza dough style in ways similar to how I adapt my ciders, which means adjuncts. Adding adjuncts is a great way to create balance in hard cider, especially when all you have are eating and cooking apples (Sweets and Sharps). It also provide a ways to … Continue reading Pizza and Cider: Tropical Heat
Cider Question: How to make sweet hard cider?
Cider or what some call hard cider is normally dry, which means it has little to no sugar remaining. This is because apple juice has about half the sugar that grape juice has and is often made with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) used for wine. The result is that when fermentation completes, you are likely to … Continue reading Cider Question: How to make sweet hard cider?
Non-Saccharomyces Yeast: Inoculating for Control
This is the third article in my series on non-Saccharomyces yeast. Initially, I reviewed the concept that the yeast commonly used for wine and beer, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not ideal for cider and could be considered a spoilage yeast. I proposed that most Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast lack the properties critical for creating the essence of … Continue reading Non-Saccharomyces Yeast: Inoculating for Control
Cider Question: How to measure %ABV?
The simple answer to how you measure the percent alcohol by volume (%ABV) of your cider is that you subtract your final specific gravity (FG) from your original specific gravity (OG) and multiple this number by 128. The best equation for calculating hard cider %ABV If you’ve read some of my other articles, you probably … Continue reading Cider Question: How to measure %ABV?
Non-Saccharomyces Yeast: Complexity & Sweetness
This is the second article in my series on non-Saccharomyces yeast. In the first, I challenged the concept that Saccharomyces yeast is ideal for cider. While yeast is a critical element that defines the essence of cider, I asserted the view that we needed to break away from our current beliefs about yeasts. I proposed … Continue reading Non-Saccharomyces Yeast: Complexity & Sweetness
Cider Question: Do I need to use Campden (sulfite)?
The simple answer is “no”. Campden, potassium metabisulfite, sulfite, sulphite, or whatever name or compound you use, it is not needed. This is especially true if you are unsure why you are adding it. As a general rule, if you don’t understand why you are adding something to your cider, don’t add it. This is … Continue reading Cider Question: Do I need to use Campden (sulfite)?
Non-Saccharomyces Yeast: Defining Cider from a Cider-Makers Perspective
What is the best yeast to use to make cider? The answer is simple. Whichever yeast creates the hard cider you most enjoy. Okay, I took the non-confrontational path but, it’s true. If you make cider you love from wine yeast, use it. If beer yeast makes the cider of your dreams, use it. If … Continue reading Non-Saccharomyces Yeast: Defining Cider from a Cider-Makers Perspective