What is cider yeast?

What is cider yeast?

It seems like a simple question and yet it’s actually a very complex one. For one thing, yeast are found about everywhere and there are thousands of different types of yeast. Should we therefore consider the yeast found on the apple as true cider yeast? What about the yeast found on the equipment used to … Continue reading What is cider yeast?

Apple Phenolics: GoldRush

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Phenolic compounds found in GoldRush apples. One of the biggest challenges most home cider makers face is finding apples that will provide sufficient phenolic compounds. The answer to the problem is often literally staring us in the face. It is the apple peel. “Apple Phenolics” is my attempt to guide home cider makers on how … Continue reading Apple Phenolics: GoldRush

Phenolics and Cider

Phenolic Compounds in Cider: Tannins

What exactly are phenolics? Are they tannins? I don’t think there a simple answer. If I told you there are two basics compounds, flavonoid and non-flavonoid types of phenolics, would that clarify it? It didn’t for me but, chemistry wasn’t my favorite subject in school. If I broke down the flavonoids into anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and … Continue reading Phenolics and Cider

The Impact of Temperature on Yeast Fermentation

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The impact of temperature on yeast fermentation. Temperature has a big impact on how yeast ferment. In fact, it can even prevent yeast from fermenting. Pasteurization is the extreme example on the hot side that can kill yeast. Cold can also prevent or slow yeast strains from fermenting but, it doesn’t tend to kill the … Continue reading The Impact of Temperature on Yeast Fermentation

Cider and Oxygen

Is oxygen thebfriend or foe of your cider?

Oxygen, it’s the dreaded enemy of hard cider makers around the world. Or, is it? I’ve written about how you should avoid oxygen in your cider making process. I am also prone to say that the answer to many cider related questions is simply: it depends. Ultimately, oxygen is no different. Oxygen exposure during your … Continue reading Cider and Oxygen

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Tolerance

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Generalization of how tolerant various microorganisms are to free SO2. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) has the ability to weaken the cell walls of organisms resulting in their death or inability to function. It can also react and bind with phenolic and other compounds impacting color, sweetness, bitterness, and astringency. SO2 tolerance is the ability of an … Continue reading Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Tolerance

The Headspace Conundrum

Headspace Conundrum: How Much?

Headspace is the amount of air or open space you have in your container above the liquid. A common question when making cider is how much headspace should you have in your fermenter for primary fermentation? The next question is usually how much you should have when aging your hard cider. There are several considerations … Continue reading The Headspace Conundrum

Understanding CO2 in Cider

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Key numbers for understanding carbon dioxide in cider. I have written various articles about carbon dioxide (CO2) in cider. I’ve provided details about what volumes CO2 means, how sugar is converted to CO2, how to force carbonate cider with a keg, and just how carbonation can impact your method for making hard cider (search the … Continue reading Understanding CO2 in Cider

Bud Grafting Apple Trees

T-Bud Grafting Apple Trees

When apple season is winding down and the leaves are starting to change, it becomes time to think about next year. Specifically, it’s time to start thinking about apple tree propagation and I am not talking about making your scion list. I’m talking about bud grafting. Bud grafting has been the most effective grafting method … Continue reading Bud Grafting Apple Trees

Pectic Enzyme: Juice Application

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Impact of Pectic Enzyme - Juice Application Pectolyase, pectozyme, and polygalacturonase are three types of pectic emzymes or what are often called pectinases. These are naturally occurring compounds found in plants that breakdown the polysaccharide known as pectin. Pectin gives structure and strength to the plant cells. This structure is what make jelly and jam become … Continue reading Pectic Enzyme: Juice Application